Articles in Refereed Journals


1.      Stocker, Z.S.J. & D.D. Williams. 1972.  A freezing core method for describing the vertical distribution of sediments in a streambed.  Limnol. Oceanogr.  17: 136-138.

2.      Williams, D.D. & H.B.N. Hynes.  1974.  The occurrence of benthos deep in the substratum of a stream.  Freshwat. Biol.  4: 233-256.

3.      Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1974.  A counterstaining technique for use in sorting benthic samples.  Limnol. Oceanogr.  19: 151-154.

4.      Williams, D.D., N.E. Williams & H.B.N. Hynes. 1974.  Observations on the life history and burrow construction of the crayfish Cambarus fodiens (Cottle) in a temporary stream in Southern Ontario.  Can. J. Zool.  50: 365-370.

5.      Hynes, H.B.N., N.K. Kaushik, M.A. Lock, D.L. Lush, Z.S.J. Stocker, R.R. Wallace & D.D. Williams.  1974.  Benthos and allochthonous organic matter in streams.  J. Fish. Res. Board Canada  31: 545-553.

6.      Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1975.  A contribution to the biology of Ironoquia punctatissima (Trichoptera:Limnephilidae).  Can. Ent. 107:  829-832.

7.      Williams, D.D. 1976.  Aquatic invertebrates inhabiting agricultural drainage tile systems in Southern Ontario.  Can. Field - Nat.  90: 193-195.

8.      Hynes, H.B.N., D.D. Williams & N.E. Williams. 1976.  The distribution of the benthos within the substratum of a Welsh mountain stream. Oikos  27: 307-310.

9.      Williams, D.D. & H.B.N. Hynes. 1976a.  The ecology of temporary streams.  I.  The faunas of two Canadian streams.  Int. Revue ges  Hydrobiol.  61: 761-787.

10.    Williams, D.D. & H.B.N. Hynes. 1976b.  The recolonisation mechanisms of stream benthos.  Oikos  27: 265-273.

11.    Williams, D.D. & H.B.N. Hynes. 1976c.  Stream habitat selection by aerially colonising invertebrates.  Can. J. Zool.  54: 685-693.

12.    Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1976.  Aspects of the ecology of the faunas of some brackishwater pools on the St. Lawrence north shore.  Can. Field - Nat.  90: 410-415.

13.    Williams, D.D. 1977.  Movements of benthos during the recolonisation of temporary streams.  Oikos  29: 306-312.

14.    Williams, D.D. & H.B.N. Hynes. 1977a.  The ecology of temporary streams.  II. General remarks on temporary streams.  Int. Rev. ges  Hydrobiol.  62: 53-61.

15.    Williams, D.D. & H.B.N. Hynes. 1977b.  Benthic community development in a new stream.  Can. J. Zool.  55: 1071-1077.

16.    Williams, D.D., J.H. Mundie & D.E. Mounce. 1977.  Some aspects of benthic production in a salmonid rearing channel.  J. Fish. Res. Board Canada.  34: 2133-2141.

17.    Williams, D.D. & J.H. Mundie. 1978.  Substrate size selection by stream invertebrates, and the influence of sand.  Limnol. Oceanogr. 23:  1030-1033.

18.    Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1978.  Some stream invertebrates from Skomer Island, Wales.  Nature in Wales  16: 132-133.

19.    Williams, D.D. & H.B.N. Hynes. 1979.  Reply to comments by Exner and Davies on the use of a standpipe corer.  Freshwat. Biol. 9: 79-80.

20.    Williams, D.D. 1979.  Air-powered stream tank for laboratory use. Prog. Fish-Cult.  41(2): 88-89.

21.    Williams, D.D. & B.W. Coad. 1979.  The ecology of temporary streams.  III.  Temporary stream fishes in Southern Ontario.  Int. Revue ges Hydrobiol.  64: 501-515.

22.    Williams, D.D. & B.L. Penak. 1979.  Some aspects of case building in Phryganea cinerea Walker (Trichoptera: Phryganeidae).  Anim. Behav.  28: 103-110.

23.    Williams, D.D. 1980a.  Applied aspects of mayfly biology.  In: Advances in Ephemeroptera Biology.  (Eds. J.F. Flannagan & K.E. Marshall).  Plenum Press, New York., pp. 1-17.  

24.    Williams, D.D. 1980b.  Some relationships between stream benthos and substrate heterogeneity.  Limnol. Oceanogr.  25: 166-172.

25.    Williams, N.E. & D.D. Williams. 1980.  Distribution and feeding records of the caddisflies of the Matamek River region, Quebec.  Can. J. Zool.  57: 2402-2412.

26.    Williams, D.D. 1980c.  Temporal patterns in recolonisation of stream benthos. Arch. Hydrobiol.  90: 56-74.

27.    Williams, D.D. 1980d.  Invertebrate drift lost to the sea during low flow conditions in a small coastal stream in Western Canada. Hydrobiologia  75: 251-254.

28.    Williams, D.D. 1981a.  Evaluation of a standpipe corer for sampling aquatic interstitial biotopes.  Hydrobiologia  83: 257-260.

29.    Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1981.  Some aspects of the life history and feeding ecology of Dolophilodes distinctus  (Walker) in two Ontario streams.  Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Trichoptera.  Series Entomologica  20: 433-442.

30.    Williams, D.D. 1981b.  The first diets of post-emergent brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchell) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins in a Quebec river.  Can. J. Fish. Aqu. Sci. 38: 765-771.

31.    Williams, D.D. 1981c.  Emergence pathways of adult insects in the upper reaches of a stream.  Int. Revue ges Hydrobiol.  67: 223-234.

32.    Williams, N.E., J.A. Westgate, D.D. Williams, A. Morgan & A.V. Morgan. 1981.  Invertebrate fossils (Insecta:Trichoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera) from the Scarborough Formation (late Pleistocene) at Toronto, Ontario and their palaeoenvironmental significance.  Quaternary Res.  16: 146-167.

33.    Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1981.  Morphological and dietary variations in a riverine population of Pycnopsyche  guttifer (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Aquatic Insects 4: 21-27.

34.    Williams, D.D. & K.A. Moore. 1982.  Activity of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus (Amphipoda) as affected by its environment.  Hydrobiologia  96: 137-147.

35.    Williams, D.D. 1983a.  The natural history of  a Nearctic temporary pond with remarks on continental variation in such habitats.  Int. Rev. ges Hydrobiol.  68: 239-253.

36.    Maude, S.H. & D.D. Williams. 1983.  The behaviour of crayfish in water currents: a comparative study of the hydrodynamics of eight species with reference to their distribution patterns in southern Ontario.  Can. J. Fish. Aqu. Sci.  40: 68-77.

37.    Sakhuja, M., D.D. Williams & N.E. Williams. 1983.  The role of setae in the behaviour of larval Phryganea  cinerea Walker (Trichoptera: Phryganeidae).  Can. J. Zool.  61: 725-731.

38.    Williams, D.D. 1983b.  National survey of freshwater springs.  Bull. ent. Soc. Canada  15: 30-34.

39.    Williams, D.D., A.T. Read & K.A. Moore.  1983.  The biology and zoogeography of Helicopsyche  borealis (Trichoptera: Helicopsychidae):  a Nearctic representative of a tropical genus.  Can. J. Zool.  61: 2288-2299.

40.    Williams, D.D. & K.A. Moore. 1985.  The role of semiochemicals in benthic comunity relationships of the lotic amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus:  a laboratory analysis.  Oikos 44:  280-286.

41.    Williams, D.D. & K.A. Moore. 1986.  Microhabitat selection by a stream-dwelling amphipod:  a multivariate analysis approach.  Freshwat. Biol.  16: 115-122.

42.    Ward, A.F. & D.D. Williams. 1986.  Longitudinal zonation and food of larval chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) along the course of a river in temperate Canada.  Holarct. Ecol. 9: 48-57.

43.    Williams, D.D. & K.A. Moore. 1985.  The role of epilithon in substrate selection by stream invertebrates.  Arch. Hydrobiol. 95: 105-115. 

44.    Williams, D.D. 1986.  Factors influencing the microdistribution of two sympatric species of Plecoptera:  an experimental study.  Can. J. Fish. Aqu. Sci.  43:  1005-1009.

45.    Delbeek, J.C. & D.D. Williams. 1987a.  Morphological differences among females of four species of sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae) from New Brunswick and their possible ecological significance.  Can. J. Zool.  65: 289-295.

46.    Williams, D.D. 1987.  A laboratory study of predator-prey interactions of running water stoneflies and mayflies.  Freshwat. Biol.  17: 471-490.

47.    Williams, D.D., A.F. Tavares & E. Bryant. 1987.  Respiratory device or camouflage? - a case for the caddisfly.  Oikos  50: 42-52.

48.    Delbeek, J.C. & D.D. Williams. 1987b. Food resource partitioning between sympatric populations of brackishwater sticklebacks. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 949-967.

49.    Delbeek, J.C. & D.D. Williams. 1987c.  Prey selection in four species of sticklebacks. J. Fish Biol.  32: 41-62.

50.    Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1987.  Trichoptera from coldwater springs in Canada: records and comments.  Proc. Ent. Soc. Ontario 118: 13-23.

51.    Norton, R.A., D.D. Williams, I.D. Hogg and S.C. Palmer.  1988.  Biology of the oribatid mite Mucronothrus  nasalis (Acari:   Oribatida:  Trhypochthoniidae) from a small coldwater springbrook in eastern Canada.  Can. J. Zool.  66: 622-629.

52.    Williams, D.D. & I.D. Hogg. 1987.  Ecology and production of the invertebrates in a Canadian coldwater spring/springbrook system.  Holarctic Ecol.  11: 41-54.

53.    Williams, D.D. & J.C. Delbeek.  1988. Biology of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) and the blackspotted stickleback (G. wheatlandi Putnam) during their marine pelagic phase in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.  Env. Biol. Fish.  24: 33-41.

54.    Williams, D.D. & G.P. Levens. 1988.  Evidence that hunger and limb loss can contribute to stream invertebrate drift.  J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc.  7: 180-187.

55.    Feltmate, B.W. & D.D. Williams. 1989.  A test of crypsis and predator avoidance in the stonefly Paragnetina  media (Plecoptera:  Perlidae).  Anim. Behav. 37: 992-999.

56.    Williams, D.D. 1989.  Towards a biological and chemical definition of the hyporheic zone in two Canadian rivers.  Freshwat. Biol. 22:  189-208.

57.    Williams, D.D. & K.A. Moore. 1989.  Environmental complexity and the drifting behaviour of a running water amphipod.  Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 1520-1530.

58.    **Moore, K.A. & D.D. Williams. 1989.  Novel strategies in the complex defense repertoire of a stonefly (Pteronarcys dorsata) nymph.  Oikos 57: 49-56.

         [** This paper received the 1990 R.S.N. Award for the most significant research on Plecoptera published, internationally]

59.    Feltmate, B.W. & D.D. Williams. 1989.  Influence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on density and feeding behaviour of a perlid stonefly. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: 1575-1580.

60.    Read, A.T. & D.D. Williams. 1990. Mate recognition and the functional morphology of the calceolus of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus  Bousfield.  J. Nat. Hist.  24: 351-359.

61.    Tavares, A.F. & D.D. Williams. 1990. Life histories, diet and niche overlap of three sympatric species of Elmidae (Coleoptera) in a temperate stream. Can. Ent. 122: 563-577.

62.    Cromar, G.L. & D.D. Williams. 1991. Centrifugal flotation as an aid to separating invertebrates from detritus in benthic samples.  Hydrobiologia 209: 67-70.

63.    Williams, D.D. 1990.  A field study of the effects of water temperature, discharge and trout on the drift of stream invertebrates.  Arch. Hydrobiol. 119: 167-181.

64.    Williams, D.D., C.C. Januszcak & N.E. Williams. 1991. Habitat and resource partitioning among caddisfly larvae in a coldwater spring.  Proc. 6th. Int. Symp. on Trichoptera. Series Entomologica, AMU Press, Poznan. pp. 85-92.

65.    Williams, D.D. 1991.  The spring as an interface between groundwater and lotic faunas, and as a tool in assessing groundwater quality.  Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24:1621-24.

66.    Read, A.T. & D.D. Williams. 1991.  The distribution, external morphology and pre-sumptive function of the surface microstructures of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus  (Crustacea:  Amphipoda), with emphasis on the calceolus.  Can. J. Zool.  69: 853-865.

67.    Williams, D.D. 1991. Life history traits of aquatic arthropods in springs. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 155: 63-87.

68.    Williams, D.D. & H.V. Danks. 1991. Arthropods of springs: Introduction. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 155: 3-5.

69.    Danks, H.V. & D.D. Williams. 1991. Arthropods of springs, with particular reference to Canada: synthesis and needs for research. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 155: 203-217.

70.    **Feltmate, B.W. & D.D. Williams. 1991a.  Evaluation of predator-induced stress on field populations of stoneflies (Plecoptera).  Ecology 72: 1800-1806.

71.    **Feltmate, B.W. & D.D. Williams. 1991b. Path and spatial learning in a stonefly nymph. Oikos 60: 64-68.

         [** These 2 papers received the 1991 R.S.N. Award for the most significant research on Plecoptera published, internationally]

72.    **Feltmate, B.W., D.D. Williams & A. Montgomerie. 1992 Relationship between diurnal activity patterns, cryptic colouration, and subsequent avoidance of predaceous fishes by perlid stoneflies. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49: 2630-2634.

         [** This paper received the 1992 R.S.N. Award for the most significant research on Plecoptera published, internationally]

73.    Hogg, I.D., D.D. Williams & B.W. Feltmate. 1992. Freshwater springs: ideal sites for large-scale temporal and spatial manipulations of aquatic systems. pp. 189-199 In: Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Ground Water Ecology (eds J.A. Stanford and J.J. Simons). American Water Resources Association, Bethesda, Maryland, 420 pp.

74.    Williams, D.D. 1993. Nutrient and flow vector dynamics at the hyporheic/groundwater interface and their effects on the interstitial fauna. Hydrobiologia 251: 185-198.

75.    Williams, D.D., J-A. Barnes & P.C. Beach. 1993. The effects of prey profitability and habitat complexity on the foraging success and growth of stonefly (Plecoptera) nymphs. Freshwat. Biol. 29: 107-117.

76.    Williams, D.D., A.F. Tavares-Cromar, D.J. Kushner & J.R. Coleman. 1993. Colonisation patterns and life history dynamics of mosquitoes in ponds of different character. Can. J. Zool. 71: 568-578.

77.    Williams, D.D. 1993. Changes in freshwater meiofauna communities along the groundwater-hyporheic water ecotone. Trans. Amer. Microscop. Soc. 112: 181-194.

78.    Olyslager, N.J. & D.D. Williams. 1993.  Behavioural function of type II microtrich sensilla on the lotic amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus  Bousfield. Hydrobiologia 259: 17-31.

79.    Williams, D.D., G.L. Cromar & N.E. Williams. 1993. Structure of the trichopteran assemblage in a Welsh mountain stream: can temporal/spatial separations and food partitioning account for high diversity? Proc. 7th Int. Symp. Trichoptera, Series Entomologica (ed. C. Otto) pp. 197-205.

80.    Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1993. The upstream/downstream migration paradox of lotic invertebrates: quantitative evidence from a Welsh mountain stream.  Freshwat. Biol. 30: 199-218.

         [ this publication formed the basis of a full-length Science Feature article in the Independent newspaper (U.K.) on Monday 21st February, 1994 (page 23) - eds T.Wilkie & M.Smith]

81.    Soltes-Rak, E., D.D. Williams, D.J. Kushner & J.R. Coleman. 1993. Effect of promoter modification on mosquitocidal cryIVB gene expression in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 59: 2404-2410.

82.    Williams, D.D., A.F. Tavares-Cromar, J.R. Coleman, D.J. Kushner & C.M. Happey-Wood. 1994. Colonisation dynamics of algae in small artificial ponds. Can. J. Botany 72: 1654-1665.

83.    Olyslager, N.J. & D.D. Williams. 1994. Microhabitat selection by the lotic amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus Bousfield:  mechanisms for evaluating local substrate and current suitability. Can. J. Zool. 71: 2401-2409.

84.    Hogg, I.D., D.D. Williams, J.M. Eadie & S.A. Butt. 1995. The consequences of global warming for stream invertebrates: a field simulation.  J. Thermal Biol. 20: 199-206.

85.    Soltes-Rak, E., D.J. Kushner, D.D. Williams & J.R. Coleman. 1995. Factors regulating cryIVB expression in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Molecular & Gen. Genetics 246: 301-308..

86.    Duvall, C.J. & D.D. Williams. 1995. Individuality in the growth of stonefly nymphs in response to stress from a predator. Arch. Hydrobiol. 133: 273-286.

87.    Williams, D.D., N.E. Williams & I.D. Hogg. 1995. Life history plasticity of Nemoura trispinosa (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) along a permanent - temporary water habitat gradient. Freshwat. Biol. 34: 155-163.

88.    Williams, D.D., L.G. Ambrose & L.N. Browning. 1995. Trophic dynamics of two sympatric species of riparian spider (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). Can. J. Zool. 73: 1545-1553.

90.    Tavares-Cromar, A.F. &  D.D. Williams. 1996. The importance of temporal resolution in food web analysis: evidence from a detritus-based stream. Ecol. Monogr. 66: 91-113.

91.    Hogg, I.D. & D.D. Williams. 1996. Response of stream invertebrates to a global warming thermal regime: an ecosystem-level manipulation. Ecology 77: 395-407.

92.    Gibson, R.J., D.D. Williams, C. McGowan & W.S. Davidson. 1996. The ecology of dwarf fluvial Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., cohabiting with Brook trout, Fontinalis salvelinus (Mitchill), in southeastern Newfoundland, Canada. Proc. 5th Internat. Symp. on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes published in Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 43: 145-166.

93.    Williams, N.E. & D.D. Williams. 1996. Paleoecological reconstruction of natural and human influences on groundwater outflows. In: Freshwater Quality; Defining the Indefinable? (P.J. Boon & D.L. Howell, eds) Scottish Natural Heritage/H.M.S.O., London pp. 175-183.

94.    Fraser, B.G., D.D. Williams & K.W.F. Howard. 1996. Monitoring biotic and abiotic processes across the hyporheic/groundwater interface. Hydrogeology J. 4: 36-50.

95.    Williams, D.D. & M.R. Smith. 1996. Factors influencing the colonisation dynamics of stream invertebrates. Freshwat. Biol. 36: 237-248.

96.    Williams, D.D. 1996. Environmental constraints in temporary waters and their consequences for the insect fauna. J. N. Amer. Benth. Soc. 15: 634-650.

97.    Williams, D.D. and N.E. Williams. 1996. Springs and spring faunas in Canada. Crunoecia 5: 1-12.

98.    Hogg, I.D. and D.D. Williams. 1996. Modelling the potential response of spring invertebrates to global climate change. Crunoecia 5: 195-203.

99.    Lenting, N., D.D. Williams & B.G. Fraser. 1997. Qualitative differences in interstitial organic matter and their effect on hyporheic colonisation. Hydrobiologia 334: 19-26.

100. Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1997. Longterm ecological monitoring of the freshwater fauna of Bardsey Island, Wales: 1902 - 1991. In: The Welsh Islands: Ecology, Conservation and Land Use. (P.M. Rhind, T.H. Blackstock & S.J. Parr, eds). Countryside Council for Wales, Cambrian Press pp. 60-69.

101.  Fraser, B.G. & D.D. Williams. 1997. Accuracy and precision in sampling the hyporheic zone. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 1135-1141.

102.  Wong, A.H.K., D.J. McQueen & D.D. Williams. 1997. Transfer of mercury from benthic invertebrates to fishes in lakes with contrasting fish community structures. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 1320-1330.

103.  Tavares-Cromar, A.F. & D.D. Williams. 1997. Dietary overlap and coexistence of chironomid larvae in a detritus-based stream. Hydrobiologia 354: 67-81.

104.  Williams, D.D., N.E. Williams & Y. Cao. 1997. Spatial differences in macroinvertebrate community structure in springs of southeastern Ontario in relation to environmental factors. Can. J. Zool. 75:1404-1414.

105.  Williams, D.D. 1997. Temporary ponds and their invertebrate communities. Aquatic Conserv. 7: 105-117.

106.  Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1997. Seasonal variation, export dynamics, and consumption of freshwater invertebrates in an estuarine environment. Estuarine & Coastal Shelf Sci. 46: 393-410.

107.  Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1998. Aquatic insects in an estuarine environment: densities, distribution, and salinity tolerance. Freshwat. Biol. 39: 411-421.

108.  Fraser, B.G. & D.D. Williams. 1998. Seasonal boundary dynamics of a groundwater/ surface water ecotone. Ecology 79: 2019-2031.

109.  Wong, A.H.K., D.D. Williams, D.J. McQueen, E. Demers & C.W. Ramacharan. 1998. Macroinvertebrate abundance in two lakes with contrasting fish communities. Arch. Hydrobiol. 141: 283-302.

110.  Gathmann, F.O. & D.D. Williams. 1998. Inter-site: a new tool for the simulation of spatially realistic population dynamics. Ecol. Modelling 113: 125-139.

111.  Williams, D.D. 1998. The role of dormancy in the evolution and structure of temporary water invertebrate communities. Arch. Hydrobiol. Spec. Issues Advanc. Limnol. 52: 109-124.

112.  Cao, Y., D.D. Williams & N.E. Williams. 1998. How important are rare species in aquatic community ecology and bioassessment? Limnol. Oceanogr. 43: 1403-1409.

113. Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1998. Freshwater invertebrates from the Bermuda Islands and their zoogeographical affinities. Tropical Zool. 11: 353-369.

114.  Cao, Y., D.D. Williams & N.E. Williams. 1999. Data transformation and standardisation in the multivariate analysis of river water quality. Ecol. Applications 9: 669-677.

115.  Storey, R.G., R.R. Fulthorpe & D.D. Williams. 1999. Perspectives and predictions on the microbial ecology of the hyporheic zone. Freshwat. Biol. 41: 119-130.

116.  Williams, D.D., N.E. Williams & Y. Cao. 1999. Road salt contamination of groundwater in a major metropolitan area and development of a biological index to monitor its impact. Water Res. 34: 127-138.

117.  Turner, D. & D.D. Williams. 1999. Invertebrate movements within a small stream: density dependence or compensating for drift?. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 85: 141-156.

118.  Williams, D.D. & I.D. Hogg. 1999. Ecological disruption resulting from the creation and modification of agricultural and urban drainage channels in Canada and Australia - can such habitats contribute to invertebrate conservation? In: Nature Conservation and the Management of Drainage System Habitat (A.J.W. Harpley, ed), John Wiley, London (in press).

119.  Williams, D.D. 1999. Field technology and ecological characterisation of the hyporheic zone. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technical Publication EPA/542/R-00/007: 39-44.

120.  Storey, R.G., D.D. Williams & K.W.F. Howard. 1999. Factors controlling hyporheic exchange in a Southern Ontario stream: modelling riffle-scale patterns in three dimensions using MODFLOW. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technical Publication EPA/542/R-00/007: 148-150.

121.  Cao, Y. & D.D. Williams. 1999. Rare species are important in bioassessment - a reply to the comments of Marchant. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 1841-1842.

122.  Williams, D.D. 2000. Why are there so few insects in the sea? Trends in Entomology 2: 63-70.

123.  Duvall, C.J. & D.D. Williams. 2000. Ontogenic changes in prey consumption by the stonefly Paragnetina media in relation to temporal variation in prey nutrient content. Can. J. Zool. 78: 748-763.

124.  Franken, R., R.G. Storey & D.D. Williams. 2001. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of shallow and deep sediments in downwelling and upwelling zones of the hyporheic zone. Hydrobiologia 444:183-195.

125.  Williams, D.D., A.I. Nesterovich, A.F. Tavares & E.G. Muzzatti. 2001. Morphological deformities in Belarusian chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) subsequent to the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Freshwat. Biol. 46: 503-512.

126.  Williams, D.D. & A.I. Nesterovich. 2001. Sex ratios in developing nymphs of the stonefly Nemurella pictetii (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Belarusian coldwater springs with different temperature regimes. pp. 117-120 In Amphibiotic and Aquatic Insects, Voronezh State University Press.

127.  Cao, Y., D.D. Williams & D.P. Larsen. 2001. Comparison of ecological communities: the problem of sample representativeness. Ecol. Monogr. 72: 41-56.

128.  Sliva, L. & D.D. Williams. 2001. Buffer zone versus whole catchment approaches to studying land use impact on river water quality. Wat. Res. 35: 3462-3472.

129.  Hogg, I.D., J.M. Eadie, D.D. Williams & D. Turner. 2001. Evaluating fluctuating asymmetry in a stream-dwelling insect as an indicator of low-level thermal stress: a large-scale field experiment (Plecoptera: Nemouridae). J. Appl. Ecol. 38: 1326-1339.

130.  Williams, D.D. & T. Hamm. 2002. Insect community organisation in estuaries: the role of the physical environment. Ecography 25: 372-384.

131.  Bonada, N. & D.D. Williams. 2002. Exploration of the utility of Fluctuating Asymmetry as an indicator of river condition using larvae of the caddisfly Hydropsyche morosa (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Hydrobiologia 481: 147-156.

132.  Storey, R.G., K.W.F. Howard & D.D. Williams. 2003. Factors controlling riffle-scale hyporheic exchange flows and their seasonal changes in a gaining stream: a three-dimensional groundwater flow model. Water Resources Res. 39: 1-17.

133.  Turner, D. & D.D. Williams. 2003. Tropical running waters: a synopsis of their nature and study needs. Recent Res. Devel. Ecol. 2: 1-10.

134.  Andrushchyshyn, O.P., A.K. Magnusson & D.D. Williams. 2003. Ciliate populations in temporary freshwater ponds: seasonal dynamics and influential factors. Freshwat. Biol. 48: 548-564.

135.  Williams, D.D. & R.R. Fulthorpe. 2003. Recovery of the hyporheic zone of a river subject to 80 years of contamination by woollen mill effluent. Can. J. Zool. 81: 789-802.

136.  Williams, D.D. 2003. The brackishwater hyporheic zone: invertebrate community structure across a novel ecotone. Hydrobiologia 510: 153-173.

137.  Storey, R.G., D.D. Williams & R.R. Fulthorpe. 2004. Nitrogen processing in the hyporheic zone of a pastoral stream. Biogeochem. 69: 285-313.

138.  Storey, R.G. & D.D. Williams. 2004. Spatial responses of hyporheic meiofauna to seasonal changes in environmental parameters. Freshwat. Biol. 49: 1468-86.

139.  Williams, D.D. 2004. Review of the polychaete genus Namanereis (Nereididae) in the Caribbean region, with a record of N. hummelincki from deep, freshwater wells on Barbados. Carib. J. Sci. 40: 401-8.

140.  Sliva, L. & D.D. Williams. 2005. Exploration of the riffle-scale interactions between abiotic variables and microbial assemblages in the hyporheic zone. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62: 276-290.

141.  Williams, D.D., C. Nalewajko & A.K. Magnusson. 2005. Temporal variation in algal communities in an intermittent pond. J. Freshwat. Ecol. 20: 165-70.

142.  Sliva, L. & D.D. Williams. 2005. Responses of hyporheic meiofauna to habitat manipulation. Hydrobiologia 548: 217-232.

143.  Williams, D.D. 2005.  Intermittent woodland pools – can we see the water for the trees? Wetlands Ecol. Manag. 13: 213-233.

144.  Turner, D. & D.D. Williams. 2005. Sexual dimorphism and the influence of elevated temperatures on body size in adult stoneflies (Nemoura trispinosa). Aquat. Insects 27: 243-252.

145.  Febria, C.M., A.K. Magnusson & D.D. Williams. 2005. Seasonal abundance and prey selection of the nymphs of three sympatric species of Sympetrum (Odonata: Libellulidae) in an intermittent pond. Can. Ent. 137: 723-727.

146.  Andrushchyshyn, O.P., A.K. Magnusson & D.D. Williams. 2006. Responses of intermittent pond ciliate populations to resource and predator manipulations. Aquat. Microbial Ecol. 42: 293-310.

147.  Bärlocher, F., L.G. Nikolcheva, K.P. Wilson & D.D. Williams. 2006. Fungi in the hyporheic zone of a springbrook. Microbial Ecol. (in press). 29 MS pp.

148.  Helson, J.E., D.D. Williams & D. Turner. 2006. Larval chironomid community organization in four tropical rivers: human impacts and longitudinal zonation. Hydrobiologia 559: 413-431.

149.  Magnusson, A.K. & D.D. Williams. 2006. The roles of natural temporal and spatial variation versus biotic influences in shaping the physicochemical environment of intermittent ponds: a case study. Arch. Hydrobiol. 165: 537-556.

150.  Wilson, K.P. & D.D. Williams. 2006. Response of dissolved organic carbon in a shallow groundwater ecosystem to a simulated global warming experiment. Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Wessex Institute of Technology, U.K.

151.  Gathmann, F.O. & D.D. Williams. 2006. Insect emergence in coldwater springs: patterns of species diversity and species- environment relationships. Internat. J. Limnol. 42: 143-156.

152.  Roy, M. & D.D. Williams. 2007. Population dynamics of the fingernail clam Sphaerium occidentale (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) in an intermittent pond. Nautilus 121: 29-36.

153.  Williams, D.D. 2007. Size-assortative pairing in the lotic amphipod Gammarus zaddachi, an examination of hypotheses and the influence of current. Aquat. Ecol. 41: 309-317.

154.  Williams, D.D., N. Heeg & A.K. Magnusson. 2007. Habitat background selection by colonizing intermittent pond invertebrates. Hydrobiologia 592: 487-498.

155.  Andrushchyshyn, O.P., K.P. Wilson & D.D. Williams. 2007. Ciliate communities in shallow groundwater: seasonal and spatial characteristics. Freshwat. Biol. 52: 1745-1761.

156.  Verdonschot, R.C.M., C.M. Febria & D.D. Williams. 2008. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon, other nutrients and microbial communities in a water-filled treehole ecosystem. Hydrobiologia 596: 17-30..

157.  Williams, D.D., S.E. MacKay, R.C.M. Verdonschot & P.J.P. Tacchino. 2007. Natural and manipulated populations of the tree-hole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, at its northernmost range limit in southern Ontario, Canada. J. Vector Ecol.
32: 328-335.

158.  Barlocher, F., S. Sahadevan, K.P. Wilson & D.D. Williams. 2008. Raised water temperature lowers diversity of hyporheic hyphomycetes. Freshwat. Biol. 53: 368-379.

159.  Gathmann, F.O., L.L. Manne & D.D. Williams. 2008. Spatial patterns in insect community composition in coldwater springs. Aquat. Ecol. Published On-line: DOI: 10.1007/s10452-008-9166-y (12 journal pages).





 1.      Lock, M.A. & D.D. Williams (eds). 1981. Perspectives in Running Water Ecology.  Plenum Publishers, New York. 431 pp. ISBN: 0-306-40898-8

2.      Williams, D.D. 2002. The Ecology of Temporary Waters. Reprinted by Blackburn Press, New Jersey, 205 pp. ISBN: 1-930665-49-0.

              [originally published in 1987 in the U.K. by Routledge, Chapman & Hall, and in the U.S.A. by Timber Press, Oregon]

3.      Williams, D.D. and H.V. Danks (eds). 1991. Arthropods of Freshwater Springs. Mem. ent. Soc. Canada. 155: 217pp. ISSN: 0071-075X

4.      Williams, D.D. & B.W. Feltmate 1992. Aquatic Insects.  C.A.B. International, Wallingford, Oxford. 358 pp. (Reprinted in 1994) ISBN: 0-85198-782-6

5.      Williams, D.D. 2006. The Biology of Temporary Waters. Oxford University Press. 337 pp. ISBN: 0-19-852812-4

6.      Williams, D.D. & C. Duigan (eds). (2008) The Rivers of Wales [Early studies on Welsh rivers pioneered the discipline of lotic ecology, and contemporary studies have contributed to its establishment as an important branch of science. This book contains 15 chapters that solidify the knowledge base of these important habitats, forming a platform from which future needs for scientific study, management, conservation, restoration and public/governmental education will be readily identifiable.] Backhuys Publishers, The Netherlands. (approx. 350 pp.)


Book Chapters

1.      Williams, D.D. 1979.  Aquatic habitats of Canada and their insects. pp. 211-234. In:  Canada and its Insect Fauna (H.V. Danks, ed)  Entomological Society of Canada Memoir 108. 573 pp.

2.      Williams, D.D. 1981.  Distribution and migrations of stream benthos.  pp. 155-208.  InPerspectives in Running Water Ecology (M.A. Lock and D.D. Williams, eds) Plenum Publishers, New York.  431 pp.

3.      Williams, D.D. 1984.  The hyporheic zone as a habitat for aquatic insects and associated arthropods.  pp. 430-455.  InThe Ecology of Aquatic Insects (V.H. Resh and D.M. Rosenberg, eds) Praeger Scientific (CBS, Inc.) New York. 638 pp.

4.      Patrick, R. & D.D. Williams. 1990.  Aquatic Biota of North America. pp. 233-255.  In:  Surface Water Hydrology of North America.  (M.G. Wolman & H.C. Riggs, eds).  Volume 0-1 in the series:  Geology of North America.  Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado. 374 pp.

5.      Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1998. Invertebrate communities from coldwater springs: what can they contribute to pure and applied ecology. pp. 241-251. In: Studies in Crenobiology (L. Botosaneanu, ed) Backhuys Publishers, The Netherlands. 261 pp.

6.      Williams, D.D. & N.E. Williams. 1999. Canadian Springs: postglacial development of the invertebrate fauna. pp. 447-467. In: Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America: Ecology and Management (D.P. Batzer, R. Rader, & S.A. Wissinger, eds) John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 1100 pp.

7.      Williams, D.D. & T. Mason. 1999. Past, present and future trends in the invertebrates of the Toronto Region. pp. 151-159. In Special Places: The Past, Present and Future of the Ecosystems of the Toronto Region (B.I. Roots, ed.) Royal Canadian Institute - U.B.C. Press. 342 pp.

8.      Regier, H.A., D.D. Williams & G.A. Wichert. 1999. The Watersheds. pp. 51-59. In Special Places: The Past, Present and Future of the Ecosystems of the Toronto Region (B.I. Roots, ed.) Royal Canadian Institute - U.B.C. Press. 342 pp.

9.      Williams, D.D. 2002. Temporary water crustaceans: biodiversity and habitat loss. pp. 223-234. In: Modern Approaches to the Study of Crustacea (E. Escobar-Briones and F. Alvares, eds) Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 355 pp.

10.    Williams, D.D. 2008. Welsh rivers and their role in the development of aquatic science. In The Rivers of Wales (D.D. Williams and C. Duigan, eds).

11.    Williams, D.D. and C. Duigan. 2008. Introduction. In The Rivers of Wales (D.D. Williams and C. Duigan, eds).



Other Publications

1.      Williams, D.D. 1980.  Beneath streambeds:  a biological interface.  Eos: Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union  61(46): 950.

2.      Williams, D.D. et al.  (Ryerson Environmental Study Team). 1981.  Rouge Watershed Environmental Study.  Part I. 45 pp.; Part II. 116 pp.  Prepared for Ontario Ministry of Environment.

3.      National Research Council of Canada. 1983.  Impact assessments in lotic environments - Methoxychlor.  Publication No. NRCC 20645 of the Environmental Secretariat, 168 pp.  Prepared by a panel (D.D. Williams, member).

4.      Williams, D.D. & I.M. Smith. 1990.  Spring habitats and their faunas:  an introductory bibliography.  Biol. Survey Canada Doc. Series No.4., 156 pp.

5.      Williams, D.D., H.V. Danks, I.M. Smith, R.A. Ring & R.A. Cannings. 1990.  Freshwater springs:  a national heritage.  A brief prepared by the Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods).  Bull. ent. Soc. Can. 24:  8 pp.

6.      Williams, D.D. 1990.  The natural history of lakes.  M. Burgis & P. Morris [Book Review] J. N. Am. Benth. Soc. 9: 89-90.

7.      Williams, D.D. & L. Kufel. 1992. Groundwater-surface water ecotones, hyporheic systems, and the air-water interface: summary report by session chairmen. MAB/UNESCO, IHP Workshop on Phosphorus and Nitrogen Dynamics and Retention in Ecotones of Lowland, Temperate Lakes and Rivers. Hydrobiologia 251.

8.      Williams, D.D. 1998. Crenobiology. L. Botosaneanu (ed.) [Book Review] Arch. Nat. Hist. 26: 148-149.


Computer Software

1.      Williams, D.D. 2000. Invertebrate Phylogeny - an interactive CD for teaching invertebrate zoology. Published by: Centre for Instructional Technology Development, University of Toronto at Scarborough. ISBN: 0-7727-6300-3

              [This publication is an electronic, multimedia synthesis of the world’s invertebrate animals. Invertebrates make up about 95% of all known animal species, yet their diversity is far less known to the majority of people than those animals we call vertebrates. This dynamic programme illustrates the diversity of body form, adaptation and behaviour through summaries of the 34 phyla. The presentation is organised according to the inter-relationships among these groups, displayed on a tree chart showing the major directions in which invertebrates have evolved. For each phylum, the programme presents: general biological information; habitat; classification; basic morphology; life cycles; and biological importance. Contents include over 700 colour photographs representing all invertebrate types, original line drawings, and over 150 pages of text. Each phylum is accompanied by a computer-graded quiz. Invertebrate Phylogeny complements any standard textbook on Invertebrate Zoology or Biodiversity, but also serves as a stand alone instructional tool for the study of invertebrates in the classroom.]

              Further details, together with a demonstration of the CD may be downloaded from:



2.      Williams, D.D. 2003. Coral Reefs - an interactive CD for teaching coral reef biology (in revision). Published by: Cambrian Academic Press. ISBN: 0-7727-6313-5

[This CD is a multimedia presentation of the world's coral reefs, including information on reef types, distribution, formation, and status. It also contains a comprehensive index of many of the species of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants associated with reefs and their organization into communities. This multidimensional programme features world maps, diagrammatic sections of reef types illustrated by underwater photographs, section quizzes and an interactive game illustrating the challenges of coral reef management. The CD contains hundreds of original colour photographs, line drawings and schematics which bring to life every aspect of the reef community; these are accompanied by numerous text descriptions. Coral Reefs is an ideal instructional instrument for educators and is an effective learning device for students and professionals who work with, or who want to know more about these fascinating systems.]

              Further details, together with a demonstration of the CD may be downloaded from:


(Last updated: 1 September 2006)

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